Musical Instruments

For this project I will design four musical instruments from our time that have been excavated by people in the future. Their purpose in uncovering these instruments is to learn about the culture of this time. The archeologists invent significant meanings and uses for the instruments they find… that might or might not necessarily be their true function.

Musical Instruments:

Birthday party blow horn

This is my initial sketch. The style I am going to use will look more like technical illustration to imply that the instruments were discovered by people in the future.

This is the style of line drawing I will use.

This is what I have so far; I am going to add more sketch lines.

I am still using lithography for my process but the idea has changed slightly.

The year is 2111 and the wilderness is filled with mountain men who have escaped from the technological world and live solely off the land. They have no desire for modern day conveniences because they remember their grandparents telling them stories of how technology took over people’s lives. One day one of these mountain men decides to follow his curiosity and excavate an old civilization that is now ruined and deserted. He descends from his mountain and carefully wanders through toppled buildings and piles of rubble, it had been many years since anyone lived there. He wanders to a pile that catches his attention; there are bright colors barely visible through the rubble. He searches through the debris and finds four odd objects. As he plays around with them he sees they make sound, they must be musical instruments! Wanting to make sense of what he has found he produces some old parchment and sketches these odd instruments, adding his own description of what they must have been used for. Little does he know he is sitting where a children’s toy store used to stand.


Stained Glass

The process of creating stained glass has stayed roughly the same since the middle ages. This art is very durable and can stand the test of time. Stained glass windows still exist from in churches all over the world.

When creating stained glass one thing to consider is if you want the view out of the window to remain visible or not. Stained glass can be used in windows, lamp shades, jewelry boxes, sun catchers, etc. When working on a stained glass project there are many exposed glass edges during the course of the project so it is important to be safe while working.

Some different types of glass include transparent, semi transparent or combinations of each, and opalescent glass that has a milky or opal appearance. Opalescent glass can have up to 6 colors swirled and streaked through the sheet.

Tools used in this processare glas cutters and pliers, soldering iron, glass grinder, glass marking pens, straight edge, safetly glasses. materials are copper foil tape, solder, flux & applicator brush, antique patina, carbon paper, standard clear glass for practice 3 square ft, stained glass, glass cleaner adn soft rags.

Here’s how to make Stained Glass:

1.  Design your pattern on paper and choose your glass and tools.
You can put virtually any design into stained glass.

2.  Number the pattern and cut it apart.
The numbers correspond to the colors of glass used, sort of like a color by numer.

3.  Trace the pattern onto the glass.
You can use carbon paper, a wax pencil or anything else that draws on glass.

4.  Score the glass with a sharp tool.
Apply firm and constant pressure straight down onto the cutter with the hand holding your tool and always push away from you. Start out with small cuts until you get the hang of it.

5.  Break out the pieces of glass.
After scoring the glass it will have a break from one end to the other. Make a complete break with your hands. Apply a quick and even amount of pressure to snap the piece apart.

6.  Grind the pieces to fit.
Use a grinding tool to take off the excess on edges of glass so that they fit together smoothly. Remember to be careful, you are working with glass!

7.  Foil all the pieces.
Use foil tape to wrap around each individual piece of glass. Make sure to crimp the foil to the glass so that it is snug and then burnish or rub the foil tightly against the glass.

8.  Solder the pieces together.
All the joints or parts of foil touching each other in the piece have to be soldered together. This creates a metal web that holds the piece together. All foil exposed must be coated with solder including the outside edge; remember to turn the piece over and do the back side as well.

9.  Clean and use antique patina.
Be sure to clean your stained glass project with window cleaner and a soft rag. If you are going to apply a patina it needs to be done right after the piece is cleaned. Follow directions on the patina.

Robert Oddy begins with an exploratory discussion and a study of the location and clients stylistic tastes. He creates stained glass with his clients in mind so that the piece will fit well in the space it will be placed. Oddy welcomes the client to see the piece as it is in progress. This is not a quick process for Oddy; a window measuring 6 square feet could take him between 100 and 300 hours to complete.

The Powell Brothers create a lot of religious stained glass for churches, schools and libraries. They focus on architectural installations and are able to create custom designs for any client.

Larry Zgoda has focused on organic architecture as exemplified in these doors where Zgoda used simplified organic shapes. He enjoys trying things that aren’t necessarily the norm. Zgoda said, “much of my art has resulted from a passion to explore possibilities within the parameters of the stained/leaded glass craft”.


Cut Paper

Cutting paper designs is an ancient artform used by many different cultures in history and today. Something sharp like scissors or an exacto knife is used to cut away positive or negative space. These pieces can be two dimensional or three dimensional depending on how the pieces of paper are layered and twisted. There can be an interesting use of light and shadow with cut paper designs that have a third dimension. Hard edges and solid are typical of the cut paper style.

In China a traditional style of paper cutting called Jain Zhi has been used since the 6th century. The uses for Jian Zhi include health, prosperity, or decoration. Red is commonly used and animals and chinese characters are emphasized.

In the Philippines the art of making star-shaped lanterns is done by using colored paper and cutting it into decorative forms and creating streamers that can be strung out over streets.

In Mexico paper cutting is applied to tissue which is cut into very intricate designs with chisels or scissors. This technique is used to create banners.

Elsa Mora began teaching art to 12 and 13 year olds when she was only 19 herself. She was born in cuba and is a wife a mother now. Her work is about the way we react to ourselves and the world around us. She expresses human nature through many mediums including ceramics, painting, drawing, and installation. She just recently became fascinated with paper cutting and creates very intricate designs.

Hina Aoyama works with a simple pair of scissors to create her complex, lacy designs. She is working on her masters in Paris at this time.

Barbara Buckingham hand cuts colored paper and sometimes uses watercolors to create small accents. To create a three dimensional look she mounts them in a way that shadows are cast.


Thick Paint

Painting with thick paint (a technique also known as impasto) is a way to give a 2 dimesional painting a 3 dimensional look and feel. In impasto paintings the emphasis on brush strokes can sometimes become more important than the subject matter. Using thick paint on a canvas is interesting and creates a different feel from regular paintings because the light from the environment around the painting will highlight parts of the painting and cast shaddows as well. This is a great technique that offers more expressive qualities to painting.

Painting with an impasto technique involves using more paint than usual and allowing the paint to glob up on the canvas instead of smoothing it flat. Overworking one place on the painting will cause you to loose the thick and sometimes gritty texture that can be achieved. Often short brush strokes are used and the overall look is more 3 dimensional.

Vincent Van Gogh was different from other painters because he used thick paint to add more movement and emotion to his pieces while other artists were using it to build up layers of paint to create realism. This painting really exemplifies how a painting can be enlivened with physical texture. Van Gogh is an example of an artist who tried many different styles and techniques. It is important to know which technique to use in order to create the feel and message you want to produce.

Carol Nelson likes to create paintings that are geological looking abstractions, utilizing metals and metal leaf to incorporate interesting shine. Texture is very important in Nelson’s art; she invites people to experience her dramatic work visually as well as physically. “My abstract paintings, I feel, are pure exercises in the creative process. Each one is like undertaking a journey, with no map and no destination.”

Frank Auerbach painted very expressively and figuratively. Much of his work has very thick impasto, an artistic decision he was criticized for at his own art show in 1956. Some of his paintings at the show were displayed flat instead of being hung because the paint was so thick it was feared it might fall off of the canvas. Some of his work seemed to be sculpted rather than painted as he began using even thicker impasto.



“Lithography” is a Greek word which means ‘to write’. It is a printing process used to print text or artwork on paper or other materials. This is how lithography works:  You begin with a metal plate (aluminum) or a stone (limestone) that has a completely flat surface (if the stone is not flat it will break during the intense pressure of the process.) Then you draw an image on the plate or stone with wax or an oily substance. The whole idea behind lithography is that grease and water repel each other. You can draw details with a wax pencil or create highlights by scraping away at the wax with a sharp tool. After the wax is put on you add a thin layer of water over the top so than when you apply the oil based ink it is only attracted to the wax and repelled by the water. A sheet of paper can then be pressed on the stone and the image from the wax and ink will appear. When preparing the stone you can decide to create a rough surface or a smooth surface, each will produce different textures in the final print.

June Wayne wanted to become an artist early on and dropped out of school at that time to do so. She has worked in many media including painting, designing tapestries and when she made friends with a master printer she learned lithography and became a master of it as well. Wayne’s work, which creates metaphors to the human condition, has appeared in many museums.

Harold Altman was an American born artist who spent a lot of time in Paris where lithographic prints were being produced. Altman graduated from art school and became a master at lithography; his work has been displayed in galleries and museums worldwide.

Louis Haghe learned to do watercolor in his teen years and was introduced to lithography when it was fairly new. He met and formed a partnership with William Day which became the most famous lithographic firm in London. They printed all sorts of subjects and worked to develop printing in color. Interestingly Haghe was able to be entirely successful in spite of a deformity in his right hand since birth. This lithography was done after a scenery drawing by David Roberts.


Dry Brush & Scumbling

Scumbling and dry brush are painting techniques used to create interesting textures and layering in a painting. This is a piece I created in Photoshop using these techniques.

Dry Brush
This technique is achieved by painting on the highest ridges of textured paper using a small amount of paint on a relatively dry brush and painting to create a scratchy look that is different from the traditional smooth look of paint. Many times the brush is dipped in paint and water then dried with a paper towel so that most of the paint is removed. This technique can be achieved with both water and oil-based media. When using water-based media (ink, acrylic, tempera, watercolor) the brush should be free from water and then loaded with very thick paint and applied to a dry canvas. With oil-based media the brush should be free from the solvent and then loaded with paint but because oil takes longer to dry remember not to blend brush strokes. Some techniques that can be used with dry brush are using a very light touch, moving the brush quickly across the paper and experimenting with paint thickness.

This is another technique used in association with the layering of a painting. Scumbling is painting into the crevasses or deepest parts of the paper’s texture. Multiple layers of paint can be added to create varied effects and details. The paint in lower layers isn’t completely covered but is altered by additional layers of paint.

Andrew Wyeth is a very well known artist who often used the dry brush technique in his work. His curator, Mary Landa, said that Wyeth sometimes used a special brush that had a tip consisting of only one sable hair. Wyeth studied watercolor and became a master of it, painting his favorite things which were the people and land that he knew.

Ludek Pesek was renowned for his dry brush technique whose artwork included cosmic subjects and surrealistic works. As a young boy Pesek had the opportunity to use an astronomical telescope and later he began studying at the Academy of Fine Arts in Prague. He was an artist for National Geographic magazine portraying the exploration of space.

Rembrant was a dutch artist living in the 1600’s who had a style that evolved with time. In the beginning his work was smooth and as he progressed as an artists his brush strokes became more pronounced. There have been accounts of his course brushwork dissuading visitors from looking too closely at his paintings. Rembrant’s work was deeply layered, giving it a rich feel.



Silk Screen

Silk screen printing is a way of producing a print using stencils and silk screens. The screen (silk or man made) is porous and finely woven to allow ink to come through. The screen is stretched over a wood or aluminum frame and the design is created on the screen either with a stencil or by plugging up the screen with glue or a substance that doesn’t let anything pass through. Ink is then pushed through the screen (which is placed above paper or fabric) with a squeegee or rubber blade and the ink that comes through the unstopped areas creates the print. This can be repeated multiple times after the ink dries with different designs to create a print with multiple colors. The texture of the paper will effect the way the ink application appears, for example if there is a lot of paper texture then the ink will appear a little splotchy because the ink in the deeper areas will appear darker than the ink on the peaks of the paper.

This method of printing, also known as seriography or serigraph, first appeared in asian countries and was used in conjunction with hand applied arts. This process was more accepted in Europe when mesh was made more available for trade from the East. In the early 1900’s it was used for advertising and prints were usually made on very expensive wall paper and silks. Artists began using this process in the 1950’s and today it is used to print images on posters, tshirts, hats, cds and even on ceramics, glass and wood.

Andy Warhol “I just paint things I always thought were beautiful…things you use every day and never think about.” Warhol’s work includes everyday objects appearing as works of art. He used silk screen to multiply his images. As a tribute to celebrities he used a single photo of Marilyn Monroe and reproduced it many times, changing the color of her skin and hair in each image.

Bob Ryan is an illustrator for various music albums and books. His work is created by painstakingly hand cutting delicate papers with a scalpel to use to create silkscreen prints.

Ted Dutch was a painter who became fascinated with the process of silk screen printing, developing a very technical approach to his work. Dutch worked for slik screen to be more fully accepted as an art form. His work is very diverse and he has had success over a range of media. This print below was hand made and is called “Two Technicians.”


Relief Print

Relief printing is basically like using a stamp. A relief print is an image created by carving into an object with a sharp tool,applying ink on the surface (leaving the recessed areas free of ink) and pressing it to paper while the ink is wet. This is a very old printmaking process (being introduced to western culture in the 15th century) that includes many different techniques including woodcut, metalcut, wood engraving, relief etching and linocut. Relief prints can be created with wood blocks, linoleum, or anything that can be cut away and inked (remember back to kindergarten with stamps made by shapes cut into potatoes).

Relief print was the first form of mass production of literature and artists also use this form to mass produce their art as well. The 20th century produced many artists and new forms of arts and interestingly many of them tried relief printing themselves including Henri Matisse, Pablo Picasso and Andy Warhol.

Grandmother Tree is my relief print final design. I started with a sketch, scanned it into photoshop and digitally created it to look like a traditional wood block relief print. Some other traditional artists who have used relief print are:
Katsushika Hokusia is a famous Japanese artist who created one of the most famous prints in history entitled the “Great Wave.” Hokusia created literally tens of thousand of drawings and prints.
Ando Hiroshige created his prints using wood blocks in the late 17th and early 18th centuries.
He is known for his serene and calming landscapes which have influenced many impressionists in the way they view the world. 

Albrecht Dürer was an artist and printer whose prints were well known in Europe. Though Dürer’s subject matter is diverse, he is most notable for his Biblically inspired pieces which are still used in Bibles today.







Cell Animation

This is my first attempt at cell animation. Cell animation is the classic style of animation used in older Disney movies like Fantasia. Animation is literally a deception of movement, an optical illusion created by quick sequencing of images. Through the occurrance of “persistence of vision” the eye naturally connects one still image to the next, creating a flow of the images or illusion of movement.

The ‘cell’ in cell animation refers to sheets of acetate or thin, clear pieces of plastic that are painted on to created traditional 2D animation. The characters are drawn with line and color is places under the line drawing (either on the other side of acetate or on another sheet below). The backgrounds are also drawn on multiple sheets and which all the sheets are placed on top of each other the illustration is complete. This processes is done many, many times to create images that can be shown in quick succession to appear like there is actual movement.

This process of hand drawn cell animation is lengthy and begins with a storyboard which essentially tells the story panel by panel, part by part. Actors would be brought in to complete voice recordings so that the artists would have something to start working from. The artists would design characters and draw them frame by frame so that they would run seamlessly together (24 frames per second) and match up with the voice recordings.

Today the contour lines around characters are created many different ways and have different looks including outlining the object with a black line and using multiple textures.

Peiro Tonin received a bachelors degree equivalent from the Instituto Europeo di Design in Milan, Italy. He is a cartoonist involved with illustration and animation. Some of his major clients have included the Discovery Channel, the National Institute on Drug Abuse, and the Universities of Maryland and Virginia.




Walter Lantz began working in animation at the early age of 16 when his family immigrated from Italy to New York. He worked as a director of animated cartoons including Woody the Wood Pecker, one of the most famous of his creations. Walter Lantz’s work is still enjoyed today as it was when it was created and has been an inspiration to many other cartoon artists.


Charles M. Schulz grew up liking to draw but was very shy and timid as a child. He was the creator of Charlie Brown which has many parallels to his own life; the main character has a similar personality and other characters in the comic represented friends in Schultz’s life. He has been published on the Saturday Evening Post.

Technical Illustration

Technical illustration is used to visually communicate technical information to a non-technical audience. There are many uses of technical illustration and we often see these illustrations without realizing it. From instructions to assemble furniture to a diagram of a heart in a health science book, in a clear and concise way technical drawings or diagrams help the casual observer understand dimensions and proportions and inspire interest in the object. These illustrations can be simple to communicate information such as scientific or engineering specifications to the general public or they can be used between highly skilled professionals to include complex symbols and jargon. Often these illustrations are of non-organic objects as demonstrated by the following artists:


David Froude is a technical illustrator specializing in mechanical drawings demonstrating the workings inside machines. Froude focuses on communicating ideas through 3D computer animation, brochures, web design and graphics.

James Provost is a technical illustrator whose work deals with science and technology in our continually changing world. His illustrations show how things work; for example how an automotive battery or a four cylinder engine work.


Kevin Hulsey specializes in automotive illustration. His work includes technical cutaways, ghosted views of engines and illustrated parts of automobiles. Hulsey works with designers, automotive manufacturers and advertising agencies worldwide.